Dr. Michael Fine is a fish neurobiologist with a background in marine biology and animal behavior. His research has focused on various aspects of acoustic communication in the oyster toadfish, catfish and sciaenid fishes. Highlights of his work include the demonstration that brain areas involved in sound production contain steroid target neurons as in other vertebrates, and the first demonstration of sexual dimorphism in a fish brain. A series of developmental studies on the toadfish sonic neuromuscular system indicate that the sonic muscle fiber increases in number and size for the life of the fish, and the sonic motor neurons, with innervation of the sonic muscles, increase in number and size for seven to eight years. His current work is devoted to following up these findings by determining mechanisms of muscle fiber proliferation and conducting field and laboratory studies on the effect of continuous growth and sexual dimorphism of the swim bladder, sonic muscles and neurons on toadfish sound production.